The DRM uses a flexible and standards-based approach to describe the categorization, exchange, and structure of data.    (2IWE)

The categorization of data is achieved through the use of the BRM as the organizational construct for identifying the data’s business context.    (2IWF)

The exchange of data is facilitated through the information exchange package and describes a packaged set of data categorized into a message that can be re-used by other users. The specific standards associated with this concept will be defined in future volumes of the DRM.    (2IWG)

In the DRM, a common approach to the structure of data is realized through an adaptation of the ISO/IEC 11179 standard as a guide. This standard provides the structure by which data can be defined in terms of its business context. The common structure implements a basic set of constraints and requirements while providing agencies the flexibility to use the DRM in a way that is consistent with their own business needs.    (2IWH)

The DRM addresses business needs through its common approach to the categorization, exchange, and structure of data. Exhibit E illustrates the DRM’s approach in the context of an example involving organizations that provide health services. Through this example, one can see how the common categorization, exchange, and structure of data will allow agencies engaged in health services to share data regarding a variety of topics in a common way.    (2IWI)

Exhibit E: DRM Example    (2IWJ)

Categorization of Data    (2J0E)

Leveraging the BRM, categorization is achieved through the use of the BRM’s subfunction. Use of the BRM’s sub-function establishes the business context of a given set of data.    (2IWL)

Note: The categorization of subject areas at the Line of Business (LoB) level does not imply that data is applicable only within a line of business. Future volumes of the DRM will address the categorization and exchange of data across LoBs.    (2IWM)

Line of Business: Many organizations within the federal government provide services that contribute to the health of citizens and residents of the United States of America. These organizations are part of the Health LoB within the Services for Citizens business area (from the BRM). The LoB represents organizations that have a common business or program interest. The organizations in this case include federal programs and activities that ensure and provide for the health and well-being of the public.    (2IWN)

Note: Line of Business categories are obtained from the BRM.    (2IWO)

Subject Areas: Organizations within the Health LoB perform many business activities. One of these activities is population health management; this is equal to the DRM’s subject area. The subject area is the first element used to represent the business context of a particular set of data. Population health management involves activities associated with the management and monitoring of health, health planning, and health management. Population health management is a sub-function and is located under the Health LoB within the BRM. BRM sub-functions are supported by lower-level activities that represent more detailed views of the business function. For example, immunization is an activity supporting the BRM sub-function of population health management.    (2IWP)

Note: Sub-functions are obtained from the BRM.    (2IWQ)

Super Types: Super types represent lower level business activities that represent data that is used in support of the subject area. Super types provide an additional level of detail regarding the subject area. In the example illustrated in Exhibit E, the super type is an immunization which represents an activity in support of the population health management subject area.    (2IWR)

Note: Super types are obtained from agency EA. Future volumes of the DRM will address the process of identifying super types from agency EAs.    (2IWS)

Exchange of Data    (2IWT)

Data that is categorized around a particular business context can be exchanged in support of a business function or process. The DRM uses the information exchange package as a structure to enable the exchange of data:    (2IWU)

Information Exchange Package: The information exchange package represents a set of data that is transmitted for a specific business purpose. It makes use of the ISO/IEC 11179 concept of Information Interchange.    (2IWV)

The information exchange package is used to fulfill business requests that make use of agency business processes. In this scenario, the information exchange package provides data resulting from a business process that is engaged in supporting the population health management BRM sub-function. The actual content of the information exchange package is dependent upon the particular business process accessed. In this case, it could communicate information about immunization records and/or disease characteristics.    (2IWW)

Structure of Data    (2IWX)

Structured data has the standards and definitions necessary to describe the data that is associated with a business context. The Data Element concept is used to structure data within the DRM. To clarify the business context of a particular set of data, the subject areas and super types of the data set are supported by additional levels of detail described within the data element. A collective set of three layers, the data element enables a more accurate description of the business purpose of the data. It is consistent with the ISO/IEC 11179 standard and includes a Data Object, a Data Property, and the Data Representation. In practical terms, the data element provides a set of information that is used in a given business context.    (2IWY)

Data Element: A data element is a representation of a data object, a data property, and a data representation. The data element defines a particular concept or item that is of interest within the super type.    (2IWZ)

Data Object: In describing the super type of immunization, it is necessary to more specifically define the particular concept or item that is of interest within the immunization super type. This item is called a data object, and, in this scenario, represents a vaccine. The vaccine represents a particular item of interest within the super type of immunization.    (2IX0)

Data Property: The DRM uses a data property to distinguish or describe the actual vaccine. The data property represents the elements used to describe an object and can include characteristics such as type, weight, potency, etc. In this scenario, the data property is the name of the vaccine.    (2IX1)

Data Representation: The DRM uses a data representation or value domain to represent the type of value that can be associated with the data element. Representation values can include integers, whole numbers, dollars, etc. In the case of vaccine, the value is plain text.    (2IX2)

Security and Privacy    (2IX3)

The successful categorization, exchange, and structure of data are dependent on the implementation of security regarding the data being exchanged. Security requirements must be considered at each level of the DRM and, in particular, regarding the exchangeof-data transaction. The DRM is designed to allow for the integration of existing federal information security and privacy policies within each of its elements. It provides for this integration through its common approach and use of standards. Exhibit F generally describes the relationships between the DRM and several sets of security/privacy policies and legislation.    (2IX4)

Exhibit F: DRM - Policy and Legislation Relationships    (2IX5)

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Comments    (2JRJ)